The Evolution of Portfolio Diversification

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Rethinking the 60/40 Rule and the Role of Private Real Estate Investments


The traditional 60/40 rule, which suggests allocating 60% of a portfolio to equities and 40% to bonds, may no longer be sufficient in a world of increasing bond volatility, inflation, and energy transformation. As Blackrock illustrates in image (1), a third class of assets that are independent of market direction has become an increasingly common portfolio feature for investors. In this article, we will explore the importance of diversification, provide a historical context of the 60/40 rule, and delve into the role of private real estate investments in creating a robust, future-proof, and income generating portfolio. 

Primary driver of portfolio returns by asset class

The Importance of Diversification

Diversification, the process of spreading investments across different asset classes, industries, and geographies, is a foundational concept in modern portfolio theory. Put simply, it aims to minimize risk and optimize potential returns. In today's dynamic and interconnected global economy, diversification away from directional only assets is more compelling than ever for several reasons:

Market volatility:

The increased frequency of global events, such as geopolitical tensions, natural disasters, and pandemics, has resulted in heightened market uncertainty. A diversified portfolio can help mitigate the impact of such events on your investments.

Changing interest rate environment:

Central banks worldwide are adjusting monetary policies, causing interest rates to rise rapidly from the historically low levels seen in the past decade. As a result, investors have seen unprecedented volatility in their bond portfolios, and will continue to do so as Central Banks make policy changes to inflation, deflation, energy shocks, and systemic threats to economic stability.

Evolving global economy:

Rapid technological advancements and emerging markets are driving growth and innovation. A diversified portfolio allows investors to capitalize on these opportunities while minimizing the impact of localized downturns.

The 60/40 Rule: A Historical Perspective

The 60/40 rule has its roots in the research of Harry Markowitz, who introduced Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) in the 1950s. MPT emphasized the importance of diversification and risk reduction by creating an efficient frontier – a curve representing the highest possible return for a given level of risk. The 60/40 rule became a staple of investment management, offering a balanced approach to risk and return.

However, the financial landscape has changed significantly since the inception of the 60/40 rule. The bond bull market, which saw the rates on the US 10yr fall from the high teens to effectively zero, was the marco tailwind that supported continued performance of this portfolio. Add to that factors influencing market structure, like the rise of passive investing and increased market volatility since 2018 and especially from March 2020 onwards, have diminished the effectiveness of this traditional allocation strategy. 

Fed funds rate

US 10yr bond yield

Interesting note: The Fed Funds rate has significantly more volatility than the 10yr bond yield. 

Strategies for Portfolio Diversification

Let’s look at a few strategies when considering diversification:

Asset allocation: Allocate your investments across different asset classes, including stocks, bonds, cash, and alternative investments like real estate, private equity, and commodities.

Geographic diversification: Spread investments across various regions to capitalize on global growth opportunities and reduce the impact of localized economic downturns.

Sector diversification: Invest in different sectors of the economy to minimize industry-specific risks and take advantage of emerging trends.

Investment style: Balance between growth, value, and income-oriented investments, as well as active and passive strategies to create a well-rounded portfolio.

Risk management: Employ risk management techniques, such as stop-loss orders, options strategies, and portfolio rebalancing, to protect against downside risk.

Private Real Estate for Healthy Portfolio Diversification

Private real estate investments offer unique advantages that can help accredited investors create a more diversified and resilient portfolio. Wendy Lin, Senior Market Strategist at Goldman Sachs, suggests diversifying into return enhancing asset classes to boost performance, including real estate. As we saw earlier, Blackrock defined this “third” category of assets as non-directional, and while property prices definitely fluctuate, they are historically not as volatile as equites or bond markets.

Here are some key benefits and considerations of including private real estate in your investment mix:

Hedge against inflation: Real estate assets typically appreciate in value over time, providing a hedge against inflation and preserving your purchasing power. Rental income from real estate investments often increases with inflation, which can further enhance this inflation-protection mechanism.

Less correlation: Real estate investments generally have a low correlation with traditional asset classes like stocks and bonds, making them an effective diversification tool. This lower correlation can help reduce overall portfolio volatility and improve risk-adjusted returns.

Income generation: Private real estate investments, particularly those involving rental properties, can generate a steady stream of income from tenants. This income can help diversify an investor's cash flow sources, providing stability during market downturns.

Capital appreciation potential: Real estate investments can offer potential capital appreciation, as property values often increase over time. This appreciation can help boost overall portfolio performance and provide additional diversification.

Tax advantages: Real estate investments may provide tax benefits, such as depreciation deductions and preferential capital gains tax rates. These tax advantages can improve the overall after-tax return on investment, making real estate an attractive asset class for portfolio diversification.

Access to niche markets: Private real estate investments provide access to niche markets that may not be available through publicly traded real estate investment trusts (REITs) or other traditional investment vehicles. These niche markets can offer unique growth opportunities and additional diversification benefits.

Customizable investment strategies: Private real estate investments offer flexibility in terms of investment strategies and property types. Investors can choose from various strategies such as value-add, opportunistic, or core investments, and property types such as residential, commercial, or industrial, allowing for customized diversification within the real estate asset class.

Risk management: Private real estate investments can have different risk profiles depending on factors such as location, property type, and investment strategy. By diversifying across multiple private real estate investments, investors can manage risk more effectively and optimize their exposure to various market conditions.

However, it is essential to consider potential drawbacks when incorporating private real estate. Investors should carefully assess their risk tolerance, investment objectives, and time horizon before committing to private real estate investments. 


As the financial landscape evolves, accredited investors must adapt their portfolio construction strategies to optimize risk-adjusted returns. Moving beyond the traditional 60/40 rule and incorporating alternative investments, such as private real estate, can provide valuable diversification benefits, including inflation protection, reduced correlation, income generation, and capital appreciation potential. By understanding the advantages and challenges of private real estate investments, investors can make informed decisions and create a more robust, future-proof portfolio.

To explore private real estate investment opportunities that can help diversify your portfolio, sign up to Parvis today.

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